COHERENCE

International Journal of Integrated Medicine

Index of Coherence issues

Current issue:

Previous issues:

COHERENCE 2/2001

COHERENCE 1/2001

COHERENCE 2/2000

COHERENCE 1/2000

COHERENCE 2/1999

COHERENCE 1/1999

COHERENCE 2/1998

COHERENCE 1/1998

IJAM 2/1996

IJAM 1/1996

IJAM 2/1995

IJAM 1/1995

 

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About Coherence

COHERENCE - International Journal of Integrated Medicine

ISSN 1565-0138

Coherence is published biannually by

The International Association for Auricular Medicine (IAAM)

Medical Society of Acupuncture of The Israel Medical Association (MSAIMA)

Coherence concerns itself with actual aspects of integrated medicine. Specifically it looks at the following:

- acupuncture and related techniques

- auricular medicine

  1. biophysics
  1. phytotherapy.

In this magazine there is a permanent section called Auricular Medicine Actual.

Publisher:

IAAM-MSAIMA

P.O.Box 3167,

Bat-Yam, Israel 59131

TelFax: 972-3-5065616

e-mails: coherence2000@netvision.net.il, auricle@netvision.net.il,

IAAM@iveg.nl

Editorial Board

Editor:

E. Dvorkin, MD, Bat-Yam, Israel

Assistant Editor:

S. Hofman, MD, Gouda, The Netherlands

Editorial Secretary:

N. Samuels, MD, Jerusalem, Israel

International Editorial Board:

J. M. Ackerman, MD, Santa Barbara, USA

(neurophysiology, auricular medicine)

K. Aung, MD, Edmonton, Canada (Traditional Chinese Medicine)

R. Barak, MD, PhD, Tel-Aviv, Israel (Traditional Chinese Medicine)

E. Frinerman, MD, PhD, Bat-Yam, Israel (pulse research)

A. van Gelder, MD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

(auricular medicine)

J. Kenyon, MD, Southampton, UK

(bioelectronic functional diagnostics)

S. Leib, MD, Augsburg, Germany

(auricular medicine, bioresonance therapy)

A. Lentz, MD, Dijon, France (auricular medicine, homeopathy)

M. Lipkind, Prof., MD, PhD, Beit Dagan, Israel (biophysics)

M. Marignan, MD, Marignan, France (auricular medicine)

O. Mastalier, DMD, Oberaudorf, Germany

(holistic dentistry, auricular medicine)

S. Obolensky, Prof., MD, PhD, St.Petersburg, Russia

(pain research)

T. Oleson, PhD, Los Angeles, USA

(auricular therapy)

F. -A. Popp, Prof., PhD, Neuss, Germany (biophysics)

J. Rozencwajg, MD, Taranaki, New Zealand

(phytotherapy, nutrition)

A. Shoutko, Prof., MD, PhD, St.Petersburg, Russia

(cancer research)

R. Stepanov, MD, PhD, St.Petersburg, Russia

(morphology)

J. Still, Prof., DVM, Pretoria, RSA

(veterinary acupuncture)

V. Wolfson, MD, PhD, Tel-Aviv, Israel

(acupuncture)

Publisher:

IAAM-MSAIMA

P.O.Box 3167,

Bat-Yam, Israel 59131

TelFax: 972-3-5065616

E-mail: auricle@netvision.net.il IAAM@iveg.nl

Subscriptions:

MSAIMA

P.O.Box 3167,

Bat-Yam, Israel 59131

TelFax: 972-3-5065616

E-mail: auricle@netvision.net.il

or

IAAM

Kralingseweg 306

3066 RB Rotterdam

The Netherlands

TelFax: 31-10-4470030

E-mail: IAAM@iveg.nl

Subscriptions:

MSAIMA

P.O.Box 3167,

Bat-Yam, Israel 59131

TelFax: 972-3-5065616

e-mails: coherence2000@ yahoo.com, auricle@netvision.net.il,

or

IAAM

Kralingseweg 306

3066 RB Rotterdam

The Netherlands

TelFax: 31-10-4470030

e-mail: IAAM@iveg.nl

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

Coherence will publish the following types of papers:

- Original articles

- Reviews and surveys

- Case reports

- Letters to the Editor.

Original articles should be written according to the following format: Title page, Summary, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables and Figures (if any). Methodology of experiment must be clearly described as well as statistical analysis. Conclusions must be backed up by experiments or by literature analysis and not stated without ground.

Case reports must be written in such a way as to respect patient`s confidentiality.

Letters to the Editor should be concise and to the point. Insults, rudeness and denigration of colleagues done in a non collegial way will be rejected without any explanations sent to the author.

The publisher acquires all rights to the work upon acceptance of the manuscripts by the editor.

References (not exceeding 20 for article, 35 for reviews, and 5 for case reports), in brackets, numbered consecutively in the text. See samples below:

1. Greco L, Percopo S. The coeliac disease task force "free from gluten". Act Paed Suppl 1996; 412: 25-28.

2. Edelman GM. Group selection and phasic reentrant signalling: A theory of higher brain function.In: Edelman GM and Mountcastle VB, ed. The Mindful Brain. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1978, pp 51-100.

Drug names: generic names are preferred.

Body acupuncture points names: generic names and according to international nomenclature are preferred.

Ear points names should be preferred according to french or french-german or international nomenclature.

Please send your material on A4 white paper, printed on one side, double-spaced, and on a diskette, written in Word format or in ASCII.

Illustrations and Tables should be affixed to the text of the manuscript.Good photographic copies of each illustration on glossy paper or original X-ray films must be supplied.

The manuscript should be accompanied by a processing fee of $ 30 and page charges ($ 5 per printed page) in a check payble to publisher.

 

Previous issue: COHERENCE 1/2000

ABOUT THE COHERENCE OF BIOPHOTONS

Fritz-Albert Popp, PhD

International Institute of Biophysics (Biophotonics)

Station Hombroich, Kapellener Strasse, 41472 Neuss, Germany

Biophoton emission is a general phenomenon of living systems. It concerns low luminescence from a few up to some hundred photons per second, per square centimeter surface area, at least within the spectral region from 200 to 800nm. The experimental results indicate that biophotons originate from a coherent (or/and squeezed) photon field within the living organism, its function being intra and intercellular regulation and communication.

AUGMENTED ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND QI ENERGY

William A. Tiller, Professor Emeritus

Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-2205, USA This paper considers both conventional and unconventional modes of

information transfer between remote substance and the ear/patient

body/practitioner system in auricular medicine. Presently described

quantum mechanics does not provide useful understanding of auricular

medicine; however, an expanded view involving electric particle movement in direct-space, correlated magnetic monopole wave undulations in reciprocal-apace plus still higher dimensional coupling as well as intention imprinting does provide a framework for such an understanding.

Weakly-coupled images of these magnetic monopoles lead to magnetic

dipoles in direct-apace and conventional electromagnetism.

Strongly-coupled images of these magnetic monopoles generate a

non-linear effect in direct-apace which is labeled augmented

electromagnetism, and is proposed to be the basis for various types of

Qi. Experimental support for this model comes from a variety of studies

on Intention Imprinted Electrical Devices.

 

INTEGRATION OF VAS TECHNIQUES WITH TRADITIONAL WESTERN MEDICAL TECHNIQUES

John M. Ackerman, MD and Walter M. Lewis, MD

Santa Barbara, USA

The non-invasive VAS technique may be used adjunctively with mainline medicine's diagnostic and treatment approaches. Learning to use the VAS is relatively easy.

The VAS helps to assess the degree of homeostasis in both health and illness. Information obtained can also be used to assess potential benefits or toxic effects of proposed medical intervention. The use of the VAS may help to shorten the clinical course of illness for a variety of reasons. It may also help reduce costs for patients, hospitals and insurance companies.

Two frequently useful clinical techniques were mentioned. The intradermal injections of Influenza Vaccine dilutions assist in the management of Herpetic lesions as well as some other manifestations of acute or chronic viral involvement. On an outpatient basis, Auricular acupuncture, with appropriate nutritional supplementation, can deal effectively as a person withdraws from many types of addictive substances. This form of acupuncture in Phases V - X with appropriate diet and supplementation can, at times, be just as effective as using medication because, as Navach contends, it stimulates secondary and tertiary chemical pathways in the brain which have been minimally utilized.

Research in progress by Navach regarding the VAS includes:

- Refinement of the totally objective recording of the VAS so that it may be used in ongoing research and clinical work.

- Development of the capacity to treat certain chronic problems with computerized electromagnetic equipment using protocol established by statistical studies of the VAS manual techniques.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND HOMOCYSTEINE

Alex Maor, PhD

P.O.Box 626, Netanya 42104 Israel

In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that a nutritional deficiency of vitamins from the B group leads to the creation of a toxic metabolite – homocysteine, constituting one of the greatest risk factors in the development of heart disease and other degenerative diseases. Research conducted in the field has proved that dietary supplements, such as vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid have the capacity to restore the homocysteine level to normal values and to assist in the prevention of heart disease.

Cardiovascular diseases and the factors causing them, are one of the toughest problems modern medicine must contend with. After years of research, the scientific medical community has adopted the approach which proves the close connection existing between the homocysteine level in the blood and arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other degenerative diseases that are age related.

As known, heart diseases are the number one cause of death in the western world. Tests performed on people who died from heart attacks found that the level of homocysteine in their blood was significantly higher in comparison with healthy people at the same age (The Lancet, 1995, 346, 1395-8). The findings regarding the effect of homocysteine, constitute the ‘missing link’ in research of the reason and factors for heart disease, since the connection between high cholesterol levels and death from heart disease do not provide the full answer to this problem.

It has become evident that high levels of homocysteine constitute an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, with the risks increasing in direct proportion to its level in the blood (Am J Clin Nut, 1994, 59, 940-8).

Therefore, great importance lies in applying the research findings in this field, to reduce the risk of contracting these diseases and preventing their progression.

The toxic substance, homocysteine, is a direct result of a nutritional deficiency of the B vitamins. In a normal state, the body synthesizes the amino acid cysteine from methionine through an intermediary process where homocysetine is produced. But when vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid are lacking, the body is incapable of breaking down the homocysteine and its level rises. In these situations, where excess homocysteine is produced, it tends to accumulate in the tissues and causes a series of destructive processes – damaging the walls of the blood vessels, increasing blood clotting, and so forth, and as a consequence, an increase in heart diseases.

Not only do these findings explain the risk of contracting these diseases, but they also explain the difference in disease pattern between men and women.

It is known that premenopausal women have less chance of getting heart disease than men, however, after menopause, the disease sharply increases among women, and at age 65, the number of men and women with heart disease is nearly equated. It has become evident that prior to menopause, the level of homocysteine in women is approximately 20% less than in men, but after menopause, their levels are equal to those of men. Therefore, the most important discovery is concealed in the very fact that, except for rare cases of hereditary disease, the level of homocysteine may be substantially reduced, thus preventing heart disease, by additional consumption of three simple, non-toxic and inexpensive nutritional components from the vitamin B family.

Research has formally proven that nutritional supplementing with folic acid, and vitamins B 6 and B12, when consumed in higher amounts than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), can reduce the level of toxic homocysteine and substantially reduce the risk of heart disease.

An extensive article published in JAMA 1998, 279: 359-364, examined the influence of folic acid, B12 and B6 consumption on the development of cardiovascular diseases in more than 80,000 women. After following-up for 14 years, the scientists reached the following conclusion: "Women taking these vitamins as dietary supplements (in the framework of a multi-vitamin) in doses above the recommended daily allowance (RDA), tend to become significantly less afflicted with heart diseases, than those who did not take them." An additional study published in the same journal clearly showed that people who take high enough doses folic acid are at a lower risk for heart diseases (JAMA 1996: 275: 1929-30).

It must be pointed out, that industrial food, stress situations, pesticides, medications and HRT, all reduce the level of B vitamins in the body, thereby increasing homocysteine levels, together with a rise in the death rate caused by heart disease. Furthermore, the risk of osteoporosis, development of cancerous processes, dementia, along with all of the other degenerative diseases connected with aging, are also on the rise.

One cannot exaggerate in emphasizing the importance of this discovery, which stresses the necessity of incorporating B vitamins for treating and preventing heart diseases. Therefore, continuing to focus on cholesterol as the single cause of Arteriosclerosis hence, treating it with antihyperlipidemic drugs, seems to be a mistake which will lead to a failure in the fight against the leading cause of death in our society.

 

AGED GARLIC EXTRACT MAY PROVIDE SUPERIOR CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS

Takeshi Yamasaki, DVM, PhD

23501 Madero, Mission Viejo, CA 92691 USA

In humans, Kyolic – Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) was found to lower cholesterol (10-33%) and triglycerides (>10%). Lau’s study using AGE was one of the few papers which met the stringent qualifications set out by two meta-analyses by Warshafsky et al and by Silagy et al for determining the cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic.

LDL was reduced while HDL, the "good" cholesterol, was increased. The cholesterol-lowering effects of AGE were again confirmed by two recent, well designed, double-blind clinical studies. Dr. Steiner’s paper, reported in the American journal of Clinical Nutrition found a 7% reduction in cholesterol and 6% reduction in blood pressure following six months intake of AGE. Yeh reported a 7% reduction in total cholesterol and a 10% reduction in LDL cholesterol following five months intake Steiner also noted a trend toward reduced oxidation of patients’ cholesterol by AGE. Confirming these results, Munday noted a significant reduction (27%) by AGE (2.4g) compared to raw garlic (6g), which was ineffective.Oxidized cholesterol is more damaging to vessels than unoxidized cholesterol. Steiner also found that AGE improved platelet function in patients with high cholesterol levels by decreasing adhesion to fibrinogen (a blood thinning effect). Platelet adhesion is strongly related to the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Other work by Campbell’s team of researchers at The University of Queensland found that AGE significantly the davelopment of fatty streak atherosclerotic lesions, cholesterol accumulation and smooth muscle cell division which contribute to the development of heart disease.

 

Previous issue : COHERENCE 2/2000

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AS AN INFORMATIVE AND REGULATORY AUTONOMIC SYSTEM: AN ALTERNATIVE POINT OF VIEW

E. Frinerman, MD, PhD and E. Dvorkin, MD

Pain is one of the most common symptom of disease, and is thought to be an indication of an underlying pathology, but in some patients it is not possible to identify a pathophysiological mechanism or to find a well-known disease or pathology as the underlying condition. The evaluation of the patient with pain is frequently complex, because pain is a perception rather than a sensation. Now the diagnosis of pain intensity is based on patient’s interpretation of a sensation, emotional response, and associated behavior. Newly discovered signal transduction pathway which uses nitric oxide (NO) to modulate the function of the vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanical wall shear stress (WSS) mechanism. WSS is a linear function of the blood flow rate and is inversely related to the third power of the vessel radius. Wall shear stress is influence smooth muscle tone changing arterial lumen. In turn, the changes in arterial lumen regulate the shear stress. Such the arterial lumen is controlled by flow-related wall shear stress using NO pathway. On the other hand NO is clearly identified as a paracrine (local hormone) effector molecule. NO as paracrine signals exert the dilator effect of a variety of others endogenous vasoactive substances such adenosine, serotonin, substance P, bradykinin, histamine. Al these vasoactive substances also involved in pain mechanism at all levels as pain signaling or transmitters.

Measuring the effect of pain on the vasomotor tone can help as more understand the pathophysiology of pain which may serve as a technique for objectively monitoring pain.. In this brief review we analyze the possible interactions between pain and vascular smooth muscle cells tone as a way for pain evaluation ussing blood flow patterns..

CLINICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN CUTANEOUS BIOELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND THERMOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF BLOOD FLOW

M. Piquemal, MD, Dip Eng

Villa Aurelia, Casilla Correo 2899, Asuncion, Paraguay

The bio-difference recording electrodermal potential (Bio-DDP) is a measurement of the electrical field emitted by cells. The field, Pontigny hypothesized, is generated by epidermal phenomena, dermal vascular ionic charge transport and local nervous regulatory centers. This study provides additional evidence that dermal vascular ionic charge transport contributes to acupuncture point electrodermal potential. The correlation between these variables seems related to historical clinical knowledge about the association between Shu points and specific organ functioning. In the future, a refined bio-DDP might be utilized to diagnosis functional and organic disorders as well as help science to better understand pathophysiologic mechanisms.

ACUPUNCTURE TECHNIQUES IN STRESS SYNDROMES. A REPORT.

A.F.van Gelder, MD

Kralingseweg 306, 3066 RB Rotterdam,

The Netherlands e-mail: gelder@iveg.nl

The article deals with acupuncture diagnosis and therapy concerning stress related problems. The used strategies are based on the observation that stress related symptoms can be divided into two categories; a non-specific response and a more specific response to stress.

First the author explains why and how the non-specific symptoms develop and how the subsequently treatment by certain acupuncture points and techniques is performed. The specific response to stress is divided into four pathological patterns in which the kidney energy plays a central role. The furthermore involved Zang organs including diagnosis and specific treatment is described.

EXPERIENCE WITH ACUPUNCTURE FOR ACUTE PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY CARE

Noah Samuels, MD

Shoresh Medical Center, P.O.B.28048, Jerusalem, Israel

Acupuncture, now recognized as an effective treatment for many ailments, is taught in medical schools throughout the U.S., though it is unclear as to its implementation in primary care medicine. This article describes a primary care physician’s experience with some of the uses of acupuncture for acute syndromes in his daily practice. Hyperemesis gravidum, acute torticollis, acute low back pain and pruritis have all been shown to respond to acupuncture, and are frequent complaints in the primary care practice. This option should be offered to patients by their physicians.

THE THERAPY OF NOGIER`S MIDDLE LAYER

S. Leib, MD

Nibelungenstr. 6, 86152 Augsburg, Germany

The theory of the three functional layers, developed by Dr. Nogier, is an integral part of modern auricular medicine. In the article presented here, the middle layer is described in detail, as is its relationship to the other two layers. The effectiveness of homeopathic and homeotoxicologic remedies on the middle layer, as measured by Nogier’s reflex (VAS), is described as well.

Previous issue : COHERENCE 1/2001

LATERALITY AND BLOOD-FLOW DISTRIBUTION: A REVIEW AND PRESENTATION

OF DATA

E. Frinerman, MD, PhD

3, Arlozorov Street, Bat-Yam, 59307 Israel

The function of laterality, the alteration in normal brain asymmetry in cerebral functions and control of neuroendocrine activity, has become more clear in recent years. Behavior and perceptual efficiency are related to a decelerating heart rate and the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, interactions which are lateralized to the right hemisphere. The relationship between handedness and laterality is not absolute, while stress is correlated to hand preference. The two cerebral hemispheres are asymmetric in their regulation of the response to stress. The right hemisphere activates sympathetic outflow, and the left hemisphere increases the parasympathetic response. A lack of laterality between the right and left hemispheres can result in both psychological and physical illness.

Laterality should be determined in patients prior to treatment of illness. Objective assessment of the autonomic response to laterality in various conditions is important in choosing appropriate treatment and assessing results. We have proposed a method for examining peripheral blood flow distribution to assess the laterality of the autonomic response. Handedness must be taken into account when blood flow distribution is assessed in patients for early diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies, since left and right handed patiients may react differently to mental or physical stress. Our preliminary data confirm that average blood flow distribution at rest is directly related to handedness.

A COMPARISON OF AURICULODIAGNOSTIC POINTS IN MAN AND THE DOG

Jan Still, Prof. DVM

P O Box 612 Witkoppen 2068

Johannesburg, South Africa

Auriculodiagnostic points situated on the inner (concave) surface of the external auricle can be described as pressure-sensitive areas. Numerous points corresponding to various body parts and functions have been described in the relevant medical literature. The purpose of this paper is to compare the data in humans with the available clinically and experimentally tested data in dogs. The following auriculodiagnostic points/areas have been described by this author in the canine species: stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas, sexual organs and urinary bladder, heart and lungs, as well as functional points for cutaneous pruritus (allergy) and acute conjunctivitis, front and rear limb, stifle (knee), hip and shoulder joint, as well as fore and front paws. The location of the sites in the dog is compared to their location in man. Inter-species differences in anatomy of the ear and location of the auriculodiagnostic points/zones are discussed.

USE OF COLOURED STONES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FUNCTION OF THE THREE TISSUE LAYERS IN AURICULAR MEDICINE.

S.W. Hofman MD

Gouda, The Netherlands

 

Upon increasing pressure, using the VAS, Nogier found three different reaction types of the skin, and named these: reactions of the superficial, middle and deep tissue layers. Originally these were found in the ear, and, according to the Nogier school, these layers represent different somatotopies. Since then different color reactions have come into use to differentiate between layers and investigate their functions. It has become evident that these layers can function in a more hyper- or hypo-active state, or show a blockade. Instead of using pressure or colors (by means of filters or a beam of light), the author found the use of stones (semi-precious, colored stones) practical for the examination of these layers. Those stones have shown more or less specificity for the different states (hyper- c.q. hypo-active) of these three layers. In the experience if this author there exists an intimate relationship between the layers and the three bodies in the subtle anatomy of yoga science, where a difference is made between shiva-dominated (yin) and shakti-dominated condition (yang), and energy-flow through the channels. Making use of the stones is convenient for the examination of flow disturbances as well as local disturbances. Predominance or fixation usually indicates pathology. There is a fluent ovoid around the body and the ears, at whose top and bottom the three bodies are intermingled. It is here that we find the main inflow and outflow structures of the two energies, which in yoga are named bindus. These two bindus are useful for global testing (for example: medication), the upper bindu, where in yoga atma-vidya influx of shiva-energy and outflow of shakti-energy is projected, has been found and is used in the color therapy of Jean-Luc Vigneron.

The detection of impaired energy circulation can easily be done (with little knowledge of the subtle yoga anatomy) at roughly the central and more peripheral channels, as well around the body as near the ears. The stones used for the superficial layer are green chrysocoll, which detects yang condition, and red spinel for the yin condition. These relate to the physical body in yoga. For the middle layer the yellow sapphire and the blue aquamarine are used for yang and yin respectively. These relate to the mental body in yoga, which is for our techniques an important artifact or conditioning related to psychology (comparable to obsession and depression respectively).

The deep layer is examined with green emerald and red ruby, and relates to the causal body. In the subtle anatomy of yoga these six conditions are called annamaya kosha, pranamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, vijnanamaya kosha, anandamaya kosha, and hiranyamaya kosha. The Kodak-Wratten filters used in the luminous detector for similar detection are 58/25, 21/44 and 65a/24 respectively.

To detect insulated zones where the energy flow is impeded, one can use the green tourmaline; comparable to the Lee color filters 013 and 322 combined, as used in the color system of Jean-Luc Vigneron. In the meticulously elaborated techniques by Gerard Fiches, who uses the sounds of stones for his examinations and treatment, the stones mentioned above can be used sous couverture.

One can make use of black and white, or rather coal and diamond, for the detection of the shiva (yin) and shakti (yang) energies.

CHASTETREE FRUIT FOR FEMALE DISORDERS

Sigrun Chrubasik, MD, PhD

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Freiburg

Albertstr. 9, 79104 Freiburg, Germany

Used by the ancient Greeks, chastetree fruit (Agni casti fructus) has, over the past five decades, undergone extensive research which has shed some light on the mechanism and therapeutic benefits for gynecological complaints. The medication consists of either the whole or powdered fresh or dried mature fruits of Vitex agnus castus with no less than 0.1% casticin. For the treatment of irregular menses and premenstrual complaints such as mastodynia, the Commission E monograph recommends aqueous-alcoholic extracts (50-70%), corresponding to 30-40 mg of the drug (1). Recently, it was suggested that doses of up to 240 mg crude drug per day 2 are effective for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

The flavonoid casticin may be the active compound of the extract, while lipophilic labdane diterpenes have been identified as co-active compounds. Presently it is still unknown if hydrophilic compounds, such as the iridoid glycosides agnusid or aucubin contribute to the active properties of the drug. If the amount of crude drug per daily dosage is not listed, stated, treatment with Vitex agnus castus preparations may lead to unpredictable effects. Results of clinical studies with particular extracts cannot be extrapolated to other preparations. This is because the total amount of effective compounds in the product is dependent on the origin of the plant, its qualitative and quantitative spectrum of co-active compounds, as well as the extraction and manufacturing procedures employed.

PMS can be characterized by both psychological and somatic symptoms such as depressive mood, nervousness, irritability, anxiety, confusion and social withdrawal, breast tenderness (mastalgia), abdominal bloating, fatigue and headache, all presenting during 8 to 10 days prior to the onset of menstrual bleeding. A number of exploratory and two confirmatory clinical studies have shown the clinical effectiveness of chastree fruit preparations in the treatment of PMS (2). Chastetree fruit extracts (ranging from 40 to 240 mg crude drug per day) were used in the GCP-compliant studies on PMS. Mastodynia, often a part of PMS, especially in pre-me-nopausal women, has been found to be alleviated by the use of a proprietary chastetree preparation equivalent to 32.4 mg crude drug per day (2).

A number of exploratory (3) studies have found that menstrual cycle abnormalities can be reversed by daily consumption of chastetree fruit preparations. Two confirmatory clinical studies (3) support the use of the proprietary chastetree fruit preparations in luteal insufficiency and amenorrhea (extracts equivalent to 20 – 40 mg crude drug). A fertility-promoting effect of chastetree fruit has been supported in a number of studies, but more research is required to confirm this.

Gynecological complaints may be associated with latent hyperprolactinemia, which often becomes manifest at the end of the cycle. Moderate elevation and relatively high levels of estrogen are frequently found in patients suffering from mastalgia. High prolactin levels may result in anovulation, corpus luteum insufficiency, oligomenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea. The rational basis of the effectiveness of chastetree fruit is its interaction with elevated prolactin levels (3). Its impact on the release of other hormones such as progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH, remains to be seen. In vitro studies using pituitary cell cultures and studies in rodents confirm the chastetree fruit effect on prolactin release. However, a non-dopaminergic effect (4) (mainly interaction with opioid receptor sites) may also be involved in the chastetree fruit effect mechanism and may correspond to the clinical efficacy, while the dopaminergic and opioid effects could explain the alleviation of some of the PMS complaints. The overall mechanism of the chastetree fruit action has yet to be fully understood.

Serious adverse events have not occurred during treatment with chastetree fruit preparations when used for periods lasting more than several months (2). The mose common toxic effects are gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, allergic skin reactions, headache, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms such as alterations in the menstrual cycle and bleeding pattern, mastalgia, and bloating.

There is a general consensus that chastetree fruit preparations (as prolactin inhibitors) should not be used during pregnancy or lactation (due to inhibition of prolactin release). Concomitant use of dopamine receptor antagonists may decrease the effectiveness of chastetree fruit preparations, and the potentiation of co-administered dopaminergic agonists may occur. Interaction with opioid receptors may also occur. In cases of tension and swelling of breasts and disturbanced menses, a physician should be consulted regarding decisions on continuation of treatment.

Preclinical safety data have shown a very low toxic response in rodents during acute, subacute and chronic tests (5), as well as with genetic toxicity, but complete data regarding the safety of this fruit still to be concluded.

REFERENCES

1. Blumenthal M. The complete German Commission E Monographs. American Botanical Council 1998.

2. Upton R. Chastetree fruit. American Herbal PharmacopeiaTM and Therapeutic Compendium in press.

Gorkow C, Wuttke, März RW. Evidence of efficacyof Vitex agnus-castus preparations. In: Loew D, Blume H, Dingermann TH (eds). Phytopharmaka V, Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Steinkopff-Verlag, Darmstadt, 1999, pp 189-208.

Meier B, Berger D, Hoberg E, Sticher O, Schaffner W. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus castus extracts in vitro. Submitted for publication.

5.Unpublished, property of Bionorica [BNO]Arzneimittel GmbH.

 

 

Previous issue : COHERENCE 2/2001

 

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AS AN INFORMATIVE AND REGULATORY AUTONOMIC SYSTEM: AN ALTERNATIVE POINT OF VIEW

E. Frinerman, MD, PhD and E. Dvorkin, MD

Pain Center of Sick Fund "Leumit", Ramat-Gan, Israel

Joseph Navach first proposed the concept of the vascular autonomic system as a continuation of Paul Nogier’s ideas of the vascular autonomic signal (VAS). Recent achievements in vascular physiology may give, in principle, a new view on the VAS phenomenon. We propose a new hypothesis of the role of the cardiovascular system (CVS) as an informative and regulatory autonomic system from the perspective of the biological oscillator theory.

Biological rhythms are ubiquitous beings demonstrable at any level of organization in living matter. However, the myriad of biological oscillators in peripheral organs are organized and synchronized by special structures: i.e., biological clocks, mostly located in central nervous system. The cardiovascular system plays a harmonizing role in parallel with the biological oscillators forming a single, dominant frequency. The CVS is a very sensitive oscillator that continually strives for optimal flow wave patterns required by humans, and fine-tunes all parts of the system with regulatory roles in the adaptation of the living organism.

The CVS is self-organizing entity that acts as a very precise analog system. The anatomical organ of this system is the vascular endothelium. Endothelial cells behave as hemodynamic sensors, translating mechanical information from the blood into biochemical signals, providing adherence and integrity for the all of the CVS. The vascular system is autoregulated by vascular wall shear stress/ smooth muscle tone interactions, predominantly by nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms. NO is the main "hormone" of vascular regulation, and its release is modulated by wall shear stress, acting directly on vascular tone, regulating blood flow distribution and influencing both central and autonomic nervous regulation.

The VAS is a measurable manifestation of this integration analog system and is expressed by changes primarily in diastolic part of the pulse waves. VAS seems to be independent of cardiac output and is primarily related to the peripheral vascular tone. Positive VAS is present with an increase in retrograde arterial flow, and a negative VAS indicates an increase in forward flow of blood through the artery. VAS is a true technique for assessing the functional state of the bio-oscillator system. The VAS summarizes information concerning oscillating systems and can identifying system variables and parameters, as well as the interactions between variables.

The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the HOMEODYNAMIC interplay between perturbances to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Interactions between respiratory, cardiac and

metabolic rhythms have a functional, hierarchical structure, and cardiovascular phase relationships may play a harmonizing role. The classic academic four-system model of the functional organization of human body regulatory systems can be completed by a fifth component, namely the cardiovascular system. Such a five-system model of the functional organization of the body is in keeping with the classic five-element theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Thus the biological role of the cardiovascular system includes informative and regulatory functions such as the VAS which is a more broad and significant than just a cutaneovascular reflex. The VAS seems to offer a real window to the most significant regulatory systems of the body, and may open a new approach in theoretical and practical medicine. An illustration of the five-system model of functional organization of regulatory systems of the human body can be seen in Fig.1.

Fig. 1: Schema of the five-system model of functional organization of regulatory systems of the human body.

CVS – cardiovascular system, CNS – central nervous system, ANS – autonomic nervous system, BM – body metabolism, ES – endocrine system.

SHEN MEN: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH ADVANCED AURICULAR THERAPY

Bryan Frank, MD and Nader Soliman, MD

Integrated Medicine Seminars, USA

Shen Men, or the Chinese "heavenly gate" point on the ear, is situated at the apex of the triangular fossa. It is one of the most recognized auricular points, and is used in the treatment of most ailments. Shen Men is known to have a powerful influence in treating various conditions, including pain, sedation, addiction treatment, and inflammation.

While Shen Men is universally recognized in the auricular acupuncture world, it is not associated with any specific organ; the Chinese auricular points were derived from observation of functional effects, and not necessarily with respect to organs and anatomy. The Nogier French auricular system, however, was developed with anatomic and embryological consistency to localizations of the points or zones.

Through understanding the anatomic and embryological characteristics of an auricular zone, the physician will more completely understand the patient’s pathophysiology and generally experience more enduring clinical results in treatment of these auricular zones.

ZERO POINT: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH ADVANCED AURICULAR THERAPY

Bryan Frank, MD and Nader Soliman, MD

Integrated Medicine Seminars, USA

Zero Point is situated at the junction of the conchal ridge and the root of the ascending helix. It is one of the most recognized auricular points and is used in the treatment of many ailments. Zero Point is thought to have a powerful influence in treating various conditions including pain, sedation, addiction treatment, and inflammation. While Zero Point is universally recognized in the auricular acupuncture world, it is not associated with any specific organ. It was derived from observations of functional effects, not necessarily with respect to the body’s anatomy. However, the Nogier French auricular system has developed with anatomical and embryological understanding and consistency with respect to localizations of the points or zones. Through this understanding, the physician will more completely comprehend the patient’s pathophysiology and may experience better clinical results through proper stimulation of auricular zones.

 

INDIRECT CONTROL OF TUMOR GROWTH IN RADIOTHERAPY

A.Shoutko, Prof, MD, PhD, L. Yurkova, MD, PhD

Department of Clinical Radiobiology and WHO Collaborating Center of Radiation Pathology, Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St.Petersburg, Russia

In order to test the efficiency of competing principles of therapy (as argued in Coherence 1998; 2: 36-40), 111 patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma were treated with subtotal –halfbody irradiation (STBI) at nontumoricidal doses (0,1 Gy x 10 during 3 weeks or 3 Gy x 3 daily), with data obtained for 190 patients treated according conventional aggressive radiotherapy (2 Gy x 45 daily). The surgical and chemotherapy components were equal in both groups. A significantly superior response was found with the STBI group when compared with the control group, with a 5-year survival rate of 26% versus 3% with conventional therapy and 16% with modern – 2000 th– intraperitoneal hyperthermie technique, used as a referant. These findings clearly show that artificial provocation of the reparation / regeneration processes in normal tissues, as was the case with STBI, are a powerful technique for indirect control of tumor growth. The autoimmune morphogenetic function of lymphocyte attraction can explain the true mechanism of the indirect tumor growth control phenomenon.

THE BENEFITS OF MOXIBUSTION

Noah Samuels, MD

Shoresh Medical Center, P.O.Box 28048, Jerusalem, Israel

Moxibustion, the burning of herbs such as artemesia vulgaris (moxa), results in many local and systemic changes. Local effects on substance P-containing primary sensory neurons and systemic inhibition of superoxide production may contribute to the analgesic effect of this treatment modality. Moxibustion enhances phagocytic and lysosomal enzyme activity, increases host defense mechanisms such as microvascular permeability, suppresses DTH reactivity and NK cell percentage, and increases the CD4/CD8 ratio. In mice, moxibustion suppresses the induction of arthritis and restores immune competence after irradiation. Human studies have found positive effects in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and ulcerative colitis, and the promotion of version of fetuses in breech presentation. Side effects include severe burns or scarring, which can be prevented with proper care.

IAAM

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR AURICULAR MEDICINE (IAAM)

IAAM, Kralingseweg 306, 3066RB Rotterdam, The Netherlands

TelFax: 31-10-4470030 iaam@iveg.nl

MISSION STATEMENT

The International Association for Auricular Medicine (IAAM) was inaugurated at the International Symposium on: From Auriculotherapy to Auricular Medicine; Eilat, Israel, in November 1993.

The IAAM`s mission is to provide an international non-biased forum for developing the science and practice of auricular medicine, based on the teachings of Paul Nogier. This open forum gives us an honest academic way of assessing this new therapy.

The International Association for Auricular Medicine acts as a democratic forum of medical practitioners, dentists and veterinarians with particular interest in auricular therapy and auricular medicine, in order to define the area of knowledge of auricular therapy and auricular medicine, as well as to encourage research, research groups, meetings, courses and symposia. The IAAM`s mission is to provide an international non-biased forum for developing the science and practice of auricular medicine, based on the teachings of Paul Nogier.

From 1995 to 1996, IAAM published The International Journal of Auricular

Medicine(IJAM). Since 1998 IAAM, in co-operation with The Medical Society of

Acupuncture of the Israel Medical Association (MSAIMA), publishes a

biannual journal entitled "Coherence". This magazine concerns itself with actual aspects of acupuncture, auricular medicine, biophysics, bioresonance therapy, electromagnetic ecology, homeopathy, non-invasive laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, nutrition, and phytotherapy. In "Coherence" there is a permanent section of 25 pages called Auricular Medicine Actual.

 

The International Board consists of:

President: Dr. Tony van Gelder, The Netherlands

Vice President: Dr. John Ackerman, USA

Treasurer: Dr Mint Veenstra, The Netherlands

Board members:

Dr. Edward Dvorkin, Israel

Dr. Steven Hofman, The Netherlands

Dr. Julian Kenyon, United Kingdom

Dr. Andre Lentz, France

Dr. Michel Marignan, France

Dr. Sebastian Leib, Germany

Dr. Oskar Mastalier, Germany

Dr. Terry Oleson, USA

Mr. Jim Shores, USA

Journal Editor: Dr. Edward Dvorkin, Israel

How to join the IAAM.

Memberships fee is $50, - yearly including the journal and access to the discussion groups on the IAAM Internet site.

Send a cheque to:

IAAM

Kralingseweg 306

3066RB Rotterdam

The Netherlands

or

Send your name, credit card number plus expiration date to iaam@iveg.nl

If you wish to contact one of the Board members please use their family name followed by @iaam.nl.

MSAIMA

ABOUT MEDICAL SOCIETY OF ACUPUNCTURE OF THE ISRAEL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (MSAIMA)

P.O.Box 3167, Bat-Yam, Israel 59131 TelFax: 972-3-5065616 e-mail: auricle

@netvision.net.il

The Medical Society of Acupuncture of the Israel Medical Association (MSAIMA) was formed in 1994 as a society of medical doctors interested in

medical acupuncture. There are now 120 members. The MSAIMA

organizes courses, training seminars and scientific conferences in different branches of acupuncture and related techniques. Since September 1998 MSAIMA, in co-operation with The International Association for Auricular Medicine (IAAM), publishes a biannual journal "Coherence". This magazine concerns itself with actual aspects of acupuncture, auricular medicine, biophysics, bioresonance therapy, electromagnetic ecology, homeopathy, non-invasive laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, nutrition, and phytotherapy. In "Coherence" there is a permanent section of 25 pages called Auricular Medicine Actual.

MSAIMA is member of ICMART (International Council of Medical Acupuncture and Related Techniques).

MSAIMA Board members:

Chairman: Edward Dvorkin, MD, Bat-Yam

Vice Chairman: N. Samuels, MD, Jerusalem

Secretary: Moshe Alron, MD, Haifa

Treasurer: Josef Veltser, MD, Rishon-le-Zion

Memberships fee is NIS 160 - yearly including the journal. Send a cheque to: MSAIMA, P.O.Box 3167, Bat-Yam, Israel 59131